LTE (Long Term Evolution) is initiated by 3GPP to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with future technology evolutions and needs. Requirements include reduced cost per bit, increased service provisioning – more services at lower cost with better user experience, flexibility of use of existing and new frequency bands, simplified architecture, open interfaces and reasonable terminal power consumption.
The evolved architecture comprises E-UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN) on the access side and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the core side.
The E-UTRAN consists of eNBs, providing the E-UTRA user plane (PDCP/RLC/MAC/PHY) and control plane (RRC) protocol terminations towards the UE. The eNBs are interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface. The eNBs are also connected by means of the S1 interface to the EPC (Evolved Packet Core), more specifically to the MME (Mobility Management Entity) by means of the S1-MME and to the Serving Gateway (S-GW) by means of the S1-U. The S1 interface supports a many-to-many relation between MMEs / Serving Gateways and eNBs.
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